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John Hattie rose to prominence in 2009, with the release of his book – Visible Learning. In 2017 Hattie released a list of 250+ factors affecting student achievement. Hattie’s 2017 list included factors that are outside of a school’s:
- Control (e.g. student ability and students’ preterm birth weight)
- Context (e.g. cognitive task analysis and deliberate practice)
However, it also included many things that are within our control. And it included things we have some influence over. This article gives an overview of 23 such factors which have a very high impact on student learning.
Factor 1: Self-Efficacy
The first factor from Hattie’s 2017 update that I want to highlight is self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to a student’s belief that they can perform a particular task successfully. Unlike self-confidence, efficacy is specific to the task. For example, a student may have high self-efficacy on a spelling test, but low self-efficacy when playing cricket.
Students self-efficacy influences their thoughts, feelings and behaviours. So it is not surprising that it has such a large impact on their success at school.
Factor 2: Comprehensive Instructional Programs 0.72
Factor 3: Repeated Reading Programs
The third factor in Hattie’s 2017 updated I wish to highlight is repeated reading. Repeated reading improves both fluency and comprehension. It is particularly powerful with struggling readers.
Repeated reading works best when you model reading a passage yourself, then have the student read it aloud. When a student makes a mistake, you correct it so that they know what it says when they read it next time around.
Factor 4: Conceptual Change Programs
Conceptual change programs are the fourth factor in Hattie’s 2017 updated list. After reading the research, I prefer to use the term conceptual change process.
The conceptual change process is based on the ideas that students:
- Integrate new learning with their existing beliefs about the topic
- Often hold faulty beliefs or misconceptions
- Change their misconceptions when you show them that their misconceptions are inadequate
See also – The Conceptual Change Process.
Factor 5: Collective Teacher Efficacy 1.39
Collective teacher efficacy is another factor on Hattie’s 2017 updated list. Given, its huge impact, it is one I wanted to highlight.
It refers to the shared beliefs of teachers within a school. Specifically, the beliefs they hold about their collective capacity to help students in their school to learn. Higher levels of collective efficacy have a strong link to higher levels of student achievement.
Collective teacher efficacy is measured using survey items such as these.